Traversing Nested Objects

Learning Goals

  1. Explain what a nested object looks like
  2. Describe how to access inner properties
  3. Find an element in a nested array


When we're looking for occurrences of a word or concept in a book, we often turn to the index. The index tells us where we can find more information on that concept by giving us a list (or page numbers) that we can use to look up more information in the book. Additionally, it might include information that is related to the heading that we looked up in a sublist (e.g. Animals > Vertebrate; Animals > Invertebrate). We link the connections between these lists in our heads, and it doesn't cause any issues to think of one list containing other lists. The index itself is, after all, a kind of list.

Explain What a Nested Object Looks Like

Objects in Objects

Remember when we said that the values in an object can be anything? Well, like the lists in the index in the example above, the values in an object can also be other objects.

mind blown

Type (don't just copy!) the following into your console to see what we mean:

const person = {
  name: "Terrance Roberts",
  occupation: {
    title: "District Manager",
    yearsHeld: 2
  pets: [{
    kind: "dog",
    name: "Fiona"
  }, {
    kind: "cat",
    name: "Ralph"

If you look closely, you can see that we've kind of seen this before when we looped over an array containing objects. So it should be familiar!

Describe How to Access Inner Properties

How would you imagine we'd access the yearsHeld field? Let's try:


We should see undefined. However, we can see that yearsHeld is a property of occupation, which in turn is a property of person. If we try occupation.yearsHeld, that'll throw an error because occupation is not defined globally. It's only a property of person.

Let's try:


We should see this printed to the console:

{ title: "District Manager", yearsHeld: 2 }

That suggests that if we type:


We should now see the yearsHeld value:



Arrays in Arrays

Let's get a little bit more abstract. In the above example, we had a name for each field that we wanted to access (person, occupation, and yearsHeld). If we had wanted to access the second pet's name, we could have done person.pets[1].name. Notice that we need to specify the index in the pets array of the pet that we want ([1]).

Working with arrays isn't all that different. It's just that instead of named properties of objects (and sub-objects), we have indexes of arrays (and sub-arrays). And, of course, JavaScript is flexible enough that we can mix the two:

const numberCollections = [1, [2, [4, [5, [6]], 3]]]

Given the above nested array, how would we get the number 6?

  • First, we'd need the second element of numberCollections:
//=> [2, [4, [5, [6]], 3]]
  • Then we'd need the second element of that element:
//=> [4, [5, [6]], 3]
  • Then get the second element of that element:
//=> [5, [6]]
  • And again:
//=> [6]
  • Finally, the first element of that element to return the number, instead of an Array:
//=> 6

That can be a lot to keep track of. Just remember that each lookup (square brackets) selects a different array for each subsequent lookup. To recap, what we're really doing is:

[1, [2, [4, [5, [6]], 3]]] // numberCollections
[2, [4, [5, [6]], 3]]      // numberCollections[1]
[4, [5, [6]], 3]           // numberCollections[1][1]
[5, [6]]                   // numberCollections[1][1][1]
[6]                        // numberCollections[1][1][1][1]
6                          // numberCollections[1][1][1][1][0]

Note: JavaScript is flexible enough that we can mix the objects and arrays together.

Find an Element in a Nested Array

Use for

What if we have criteria for finding an element that we know is in a nested data structure? Let's implement a simple find function that takes two arguments: an array (which can contain sub-arrays) and a function (criteriaFn in the example below) that defines the criteria for what we're looking for and returns true if a matching element is found.

function find(array, criteriaFn) {
  for (let i = 0; i < array.length; i++) {
    if (criteriaFn(array[i])) {
      return array[i]

REMEMBER In JavaScript, functions are "first class data" just like Numbers. It's probably not surprising to imagine writing: find( [1,2,["a", "b"]], 3.14) or find( [1,2,["a", "b"]], "Byron the Poodle"). Since functions are first-class data, just like Numbers, it means that the following code shouldn't stay foreign to you: find( [1,2,["a", "b"]], function(someNumber){ return someNumber % 2 === 0} ). In fact, writing functions that test some condition (a "criteria function") is so common, JavaScript even has an advanced syntax for writing functions that do one evaluation and return the value: the arrow function syntax. Thus we could write: find( [1,2,["a", "b"]], someNumber => someNumber % 2 === 0 ). This code would do something like find all the members in the array that are even.

The above will work for a flat array — but what if array looks like the numberCollections nested array and we want to find the first element that's > 5? We'll need some way to move down the levels of the array (like we described above).

Follow along with the code below — we know it's a little tricky, but be sure to read the comments!

function find(array, criteriaFn) {
  // initialize two variables, `current`, and `next`
  // `current` keeps track of the element that we're
  // currently on, just like we did when unpacking the
  // array above; `next` is itself an array that keeps
  // track of the elements (which might be arrays!) that
  // we haven't looked at yet
  let current = array
  let next = []

  // hey, a `while` loop! this loop will only
  // trigger if `current` is truthy — so when
  // we exhaust `next` and, below, attempt to
  // `shift()` `undefined` (when `next` is empty)
  // onto `current`, we'll exit the loop
  // Note that we had to add on this || statement
  // if current is the number 0 it won't be run in the
  // loop. Recall your truthy / falsey rules! This is
  // a subtle bug that went unnoticed in this code for
  // many years!
  while (current || current === 0) {
    // if `current` satisfies the `criteriaFn`, then
    // return it — recall that `return` will exit the
    // entire function!
    if (criteriaFn(current)) {
      return current

    // if `current` is an array, we want to push all of
    // its elements (which might be arrays) onto `next`
    if (Array.isArray(current)) {
      for (let i = 0; i < current.length; i++) {

    // after pushing any children (if there
    // are any) of `current` onto `next`, we want to take
    // the first element of `next` and make it the
    // new `current` for the next pass of the `while`
    // loop
    current = next.shift()

  // if we haven't
  return null

Type the code (you can exclude the comments) above into your console and run it a few times.

Try it with the numberCollections nested array and the function number => number > 5.

find(numberCollections, number => number > 5)

Does it return the result you'd expect? What about if we pass this into criteriaFn?

number => (typeof number === 'number' && number > 5)

Without knowing it, you've just implemented your first breadth-first search! Congratulations!

Breadth-first search is one of the main algorithms (that's right, you've conquered an algorithm) used to search through nested objects. It earned its name because it looks at the siblings of an object (the elements that are on the same level) before looking at the children (the elements that are one or more levels down).

A Challenge, Should You Choose to Accept It

Can you modify the breadth-first search algorithm in such a way that it will traverse both nested objects and nested arrays (or even a mix of both)?


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