Sql Relational Databases Readme


We'll introduce the concept of relational databases and how they recognize relations among stored items of information.


  1. Describe the structure of a relational database as tables related through the use of primary and foreign keys
  2. Define a primary key
  3. Define a foreign key

Relational Databases

Let's say that you've been hired by a big and important company to do the payroll for all of their employees. We'll call it MyFace (inspired by nothing in particular). Every two weeks, you need to look up each and every employee and how much they get paid, and send them a check and send a notice of that check to their manager (managers, after all, should know when their employees are getting paid).

In addition, let's say that managers get paid every month, instead of every two weeks. So, once a month we need to go through the spreadsheet again, find just the managers, and send them their checks. In such a situation, we would need a place to store all of the managers and employees.

Using a spreadsheet, your storage system might look something like this:

So every two weeks, we would have to look through every single entry in this spreadsheet, send each person their check, and then figure out a way to identify an employee's manager to send that manager a confirmation that each employee has been paid. We need some way to associate the employees to their manager. We could add a "Manager" column to the spreadsheet that would be filled out with the name of that person's manager (if that person is an employee and not a manager themselves). This is getting messy. Not only do we have to do a lot of searching through the spreadsheet and manual detection of who is an employee and who is a manager, but we also have to match each employee with the name of their manager. If only there was some way to simplify our system!

Enter relational databases. A relational database, simply put, is a database structured to recognize relations among stored items of information. In such a system, it would be easy to tell an employee that they belong to a certain manager and to tell a manager that they have many employees. This might sound familiar if you've built object oriented Ruby programs in which instances of a class are related to one another. A relational database will allow us to store representations of our Ruby objects and preserve the relationships between those objects when we store them.

Relational Database Structure

Continuing with our payroll example from earlier, employees and managers would be stored in their own tables. A table is like a spreadsheet; it has columns and rows.

Our managers table would look something like this:

managers table

And our employees table would look something like this:

employees table

Our employees table has a "Manager ID" column, filled with the ID number of that person's manager. In a relational database, every row has a number, called a primary key. Relationships between tables can be established by using a foreign key column, like our "Manager ID" column, that uses that primary key of another table to refer to a member of that table.

Why should our foreign key, our point of reference between an employee and his or her manager, be a number? Why not just use the manager's name? Well, names are very rarely unique. What if MyFace hires a new manager, also named Steve? It's a popular name, after all. How would our database know which Steve manages which employees. Primary keys, on the other hand, are always unique!

Additionally, what if Steve gets sick of sharing his name with all of the other Steves out there and decides to change his name to Brittany? We would have to look up every single employee that had Steve as a manager and change a "Manager Name" column to "Brittany". We are programmers, we're lazy, we like to code for the future and our databases are no exception. If we use primary keys, i.e. numbers that never change and always refer to the same manager, our database can accommodate something like a manager's name change with ease.

Now, with these separated but related tables, our job just got a lot easier. We should thank...

Edgar Codd

Edgar Codd invented the concept of the relational database, in other words, he came up with the idea that storing data in tables, indexed by primary key and related by foreign keys would normalize that data.

At the time, Nixon was normalizing relations with China.  I figured that if he could normalize relations, then so could I.

-–Edgar Codd

Codd developed Relational Database Theory as a graduate student. Afterwards, he worked with Don Chamberlain at IBM to create a language that would allow the user to traverse these relational databases for specific subsets of information.

The language they created was SQL––Structured (or Standard) Query Language. SQL allows the user to carry out queries like "find the employees who make more than the managers", or "find the managers whose employees make under $X" in an efficient and sensical manner. Before SQL, database queries were all about where data was stored, instead of what data a user is looking for.

View Edgar Codd and Relational Databases on Learn.co and start learning to code for free.

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