Skills Based Javascript Intro To Flow...

Objectives

  • Write if statements in JS
  • Write if-else if-else statements in JS
  • Use the ternary operator in JS
  • Write switch statements in JS

About

Sometimes, we only want to allow the execution of code under certain conditions.

Think of it this way. When you're driving a car, you can only go through a light if the light is green. Otherwise, if the light is yellow, you prepare to slow down; and if the light is red, you stop. Notice that we have distinct cases that we want to check for.

In programming, when we check for a statement in this way, we check to see whether the statement is true or false. JavaScript, being the friendly language that it is, uses true and false directly to mean exactly what they say.

Comparisons

The example above might be written, in pseudo-JavaScript (for once, this won't work in the browser console), like this:

if (lightIsGreen) {
  go()
} else if (lightIsRed) {
  stop()
} else if (lightIsYellow) {
  slowDown()
}

When we get down to it, every if statement like the above is saying, "If the thing in the parentheses is true, then do what's between the curly braces."

But before we dive in to if statements, how do the things in parentheses become true or false?

JavaScript lets us compare things. Most of these comparisons come straight from math: we can ask if something is less than something else (enter these in your console!):

3 < 5 // true
3 < 2 // false
3 < 3 // false
3 < 10000000 // true
'alpha' < 'beta' // true (!)

We can ask if something is greater than something else:

5 > -1 // true
5 > 5 // false
20 > 30 // false
'gamma' > 'beta' // true (!)

We can even ask if something is less-than-or-equal-to something else:

20 <= 30 // true
20 <= 20 // true
20 <= 10 // false

or greater-than-or-equal-to something:

5 >= 5 // true
5 >= 1 // true
5 >= 10 // false

How do we test if something is exactly equal to something else? We know that we can't just use =, because that's how we assign values to variables. Instead, we need to use ===:

5 === 5 // true
4 === 5 // false
'5' === 5 // false
parseInt('5', 10) === 5 // true

Top Tip: Sometimes you'll see only == for comparison in JavaScript. It's best to use ===, as the former will try to coerce values in order to compare them, meaning that it's not always comparing what it says it's comparing!

Combining Comparisons

We can combine these comparisons together using && (pronounced "and") and || ("or"):

5 === 5 && 10 < 11 // true
5 === 6 && 10 < 11 // false
5 === 5 && 10 < 9 // false

4 > 5 || 20 <= 20 // true
4 > 5 || 20 < 19 // false
4 > 3 || 20 < 19 // true

With &&, both statements (to the left and right of &&) must be true in order for the entire expression (that is, the entire phrase) to be true; with ||, only one of the statements needs to be true.

Keep in mind that JavaScript reads these combinations from left to right, returns the last statement it saw, and only evaluates as many statements as necessary. So if we write,

5 === 5 && 1

JavaScript won't return true, it will return 1. If instead we write,

5 === 4 && 0

JavaScript will return false, because it stops evaluating the && expression (again, this just means the entire phrase of comparisons) on its first false encounter. Similarly, if we write,

200 < 100 || 'alphabet'

JavaScript will return 'alphabet', because it needs to evaluate the right-hand side of || (since 200 < 100 is false). But if we write,

200 > 100 || 'treasure'

JavaScript simply returns true — it doesn't even check the right-hand side of ||.

Controlling the flow of our programs

JavaScript lets us control what blocks of code to execute using if statements, if-else statements, if-else if-else statements, ternary operators, and switch statements.

You'll be writing your code in flow-control.js. Make sure to run the tests using learn.

if Statements

if statements look like this:

if (something) {
  // do something
}

They work as the name implies: if something is truthy (so the boolean true or anything other than the empty string (''), 0, false, null, or undefined), the code in between the curly braces runs; if not, the code between the curly braces is skipped.

Now, in flow-control.js let's write a function called basicTeenager that accepts an age as a parameter. The function should contain an if-statement that checks to see if the age is a teenager. If the age is between 13 and 19, return "You are a teenager!"

if-else Statements

You will often see an if statement used in combination with an else clause. An else clause will only get executed if the previous if statement is falsey.

Syntax:

if (conditionToTest) {
  // executed if `conditionToTest` is truthy
} else {
  // executed if `conditionToTest` is falsey
}
  • Define a function teenager that accepts an age as a parameter. If the age is between 13 and 19 it should return "You are a teenager!". Otherwise, the function should return "You are not a teenager".

if/else if Statements

if statements can also be combined with an else if clause. This is like an else statement, but with its own condition. It will only run if its condition is true, and the previous statement's condition was false.

if (conditionToTest1) {
    // condition is false hence code is not executed
} else if (conditionToTest2) {
  // execute this code if `conditionToTest1`statement is falsey AND `conditionToTest2` is truthy
}

You can optionally add a final else statement after all of your else if statements. You can probably guess what will happen: if all of the other statements are falsey, this final else block will execute; otherwise, an earlier statement executes and the else block is skipped.

if (conditionToTest1) {
  // condition is false hence code is not executed
} else if (conditionToTest2) {
  // execute this code if `conditionToTest1` statement is falsey AND `conditionToTest2` is truthy
} else {
  // execute this code if none of the other conditions are met
}
  • Define a function ageChecker that takes in an age as a parameter. If the age is between 13-19 it should return "You are a teenager!". If the age is 12 or below, it should return "You are a kid". If the age is above 19, it should return "You are a grownup"

Top tip: Remember, if you place a return statement before the end of the function, anything after return won't get executed. We can use this to make code terser:

function canGo(lightColor) {
  if (lightColor === 'green') {
    return true
  }

  return false
}

The above function will return true if lightColor is 'green' — go ahead and try it out.

canGo('green') // true

And false otherwise:

canGo('red') // false

Notice that we didn't have to use an else statement; we can just depend on return.

We need to be careful with return, however, because it's easy to return too early and not execute important parts of the function. For example,

function canGo(lightColor) {
  return true

  if (lightColor === 'red') {
    return false
  }
}

will always return true, even if lightColor is 'red'. Try it!

canGo('red') // true

And that's a great way to cause an accident.

Ternary Operator

You can think of it as a shortcut for the if-else statement.

This operator tests a condition; if the condition is truthy, it evaluates the left-hand side of the colon; otherwise it evaluates the right-hand side of the colon.

Syntax:

conditionToTest ? valueToBeReturnedIfTrue : valueToBeReturnedIfFalse
  • Define a function ternaryTeenager that accepts age as a parameter. The body of the function should use the ternary operator to return "You are a teenager" if age is between 13-19 and returns "You are not a teenager" if the age is anything else.

Top tip: In order for the function to actually return the evaluation of the ternary operator, you'll need to prepend return to the expression:

return conditionToTest ? valueToBeReturnedIfTrue : valueToBeReturnedIfFalse

Switch Statements

Switch statements acts like a big if/else if/else chain. The switch expression is evaluated once and the value of the expression is compared with the values of each case. If there is a match, the associated block of code is executed.

Syntax:

switch (expression) {
  case n:
      // code to be executed if case n is true
      break; // break out of switch statement once code executed
  case m:
      // code to be executed if case m is true
      break; // break out of switch statement once code executed
  default:  // all other cases
      // code to be executed if case n and case m false
}

Example:

var mood = "hungry"
switch(mood) {
  case "happy":
    console.log("Dance to Pharrell's 'Happy'");
    break;
  case "sad":
    console.log("You should eat a pint of ice cream");
    break;
  case "anxious":
    console.log("Take some deep breaths");
    break;
  case "hungry":
    console.log("You should eat a big chocolate cake");
    break;
  default:
    console.log("That's not a mood we support");
}

In the example above, we'll see "You should eat a big chocolate cake" printed to the console. If we change the value of the mood variable to sad you'll see "You should eat a pint of ice cream". If the value of mood changed to "grumpy", the default statement would trigger and print out "That's not a mood we support".

  • Define a function switchAge that accepts an age as a parameter. The case statement should switch on age and return "You are a teenager" if the age is 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, or 19, and return "You have an age" as the default.

As with any function, return will halt execution at any point. Thus if we wrote,

function feelings(mood) {
  switch(mood) {
    case "happy":
      return "Dance to Pharrell's 'Happy'"
    default:
      return "I don't recognize that mood."
  }

  console.log("Let us know how you're feeling tomorrow!")
}

the console.log() statement at the bottom of the function will never run. This is a major difference between return and break: return exits the function and returns a value; break exits a block and does not (generally speaking) have a value associated with it.

Resources

View JavaScript Flow Control on Learn.co and start learning to code for free.

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