Document Structure

Cloning Down Your Repository

If you've completed the steps in the Setting Up a New Site lesson, clone down your existing exceptional-realty repository by do the following:

  • Open the Learn IDE, and in the terminal, type
git clone https://github.com/<your_username_here>/exceptional-realty
cd exceptional-realty
git fetch --all
git checkout main-pages
  • A folder with your previous work will appear in the IDE file tree, all remote branches will be retrieved, and you will then switch to the main-pages branch we started in the previous lesson.

Alternatively, if you are having trouble or do not have a repository set up, you can access all the files you need to follow along by following the following steps to clone down the demo:

git clone https://github.com/learn-co-curriculum/exceptional-realty-demo
cd exceptional-realty-demo
git fetch --all
git checkout document-structure

These files mirror the files that exist at the start of this lesson, so use these to build from and follow along.

Note: To see your project live as you code, simply type httpserver in the terminal, and this will start a server for you. Now you can go to the IP address that the terminal gives you to view your web pages! (Check out this Help Center article for more information).

Alternate video link.

Resource Link: HTML Encoding (Character Sets)

Basic HTML structure

<!DOCTYPE html>

At the top of every HTML document, you're always going to start off with the same element, DOCTYPE. The DOCTYPE element starts with a <, followed by an ! and DOCTYPE, then specifies which version of HTML we want to use. In HTML5, we just say html, and the browser will interpret the rest of the document as HTML5. To close the element, add a > at the end. Go ahead and add <!DOCTYPE html> to your index.html file.

<html> </html>

The next element is also always required: <html>. This tells the browser that everything that falls between the opening and closing html tags is to be interpreted as HTML code.

One attribute that is important to include in the <html> tag is lang, which declares what language the webpage is written in. In our case, writing in English, we will use lang="en". This helps search engines to know what language a page is written in. Our index.html should now look like this:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
</html>

<!-- Comments -->

Inside our HTML, sometimes we want to leave notes either for ourselves or for other developers. An example might be a brief explanation of what some part of the code is doing, or an important message or reminder. We can write comments by wrapping the text we want like so:

<!-- This is a comment! -->

Text included in a comment will not be visible on the webpage, but will be visible in the browser console and .html file.

<head> </head>

Inside our <html> tags, we divide the page into two main sections, <head>, and <body>, which both play unique roles. Before we get to adding viewable content, there are some additional bits of information we need to declare about our webpage, and this information will be stored in the <head>.

In the <head> section, we place a number of specific tags.

  • The <meta> tag provides metadata about the document, including what character set to use, a description of the content, specific keywords, and the author. Adding this metadata on the content of the page helps search engines to know what the page contains. There is also a viewport method, which instructs the browser on how to control the page's dimensions and scaling. Examples of <meta> tags we can add into our head section:
<meta charset="UTF-8">
<meta name="description" content="Exceptional Realty Group, your real estate agent for buying, selling, and renting throughout New York City">
<meta name="keywords" content="Exceptional Realty Group, real estate, houses, property">
<meta name="author" content="Jon Grover">
<meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0">
  • The <link> tag is also used here, and is for importing in external files. Most commonly, we'll see this being used to import in CSS style sheets as well as fonts. In the below example, link is used to import in a specific Google font:
<link href="https://fonts.googleapis.com/css?family=Monoton" rel="stylesheet">
  • Another common tag in the <head> is <title>. The <title>, as its name implies, is where the title of the webpage should be entered. Text added inside the <title> tags will appear up on your browser tab. Let's add a title for our index.html page:
<title>Exceptional Realty Group - Luxury Homes - About</title>

If you spin up httpserver and check out the site, it'll still be blank, but notice that the tab has our title in it!

In the next lesson, we'll go into some of the basic text elements that go into the <body> section!

Add, Commit and Push!

If you're following along on your own repository, when you're finished, make sure that your work is saved remotely before moving on to the next lesson!

git add .
git commit -m 'added document structure and head content to index.html'
git push

Notice, too, that since you've already set up tracking on your branch from the previous lesson, you can now just use git push and the main-pages branch will be updated remotely.

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